So the Palmers are all monsters now (did the show’s traumatic center get a makeover in Final Dossier?)


The Palmers and the uncomfortable nature of their trauma are at the center of Twin Peaks, but thanks to Tamara Preston’s interpretation in The Final Dossier the reality of the Palmers’ trauma has possibly been redefined into the product of the demons Joudy and Ba’alzeBOB finding each other and mating. Is Twin Peaks still the same kind of story at its heart?

I do realize there are multiple ways (as there are with anything Twin Peaks) to read the Judy and Bob situation, but today’s column is working under the assumption it is now supposed to be true. Being honest, I’m really struggling with this and I really need need to write this column so I can explore why this path was suggested to be part of the greater Twin Peaks mythology in the first place.

I think the fundamental structure of Laura’s dynamics with her family is changed, and therefore herself and her experiences are also changed. I can’t comprehend why it was done. Suddenly it seems less about Laura being an incest victim and more about being the offspring of monsters. Laura being a victim of incest happens to be an effect of that but is no longer the primary issue. It seems like Laura is now being framed in a “larger” situation, and I don’t know how incest survivors should feel about that much less anyone who ever needed Laura to be a regular girl dealing with extraordinary circumstances. Because she’s not just a regular girl anymore if she’s born from demons and Firemen are imbuing her with golden life force. All the people Sheryl Lee said she made Fire Walk With Me for, the victims of incest and similar abuses, how do they feel about the cosmic-ifying of their fairly real-world-level struggles? Hell, how does Sheryl Lee read this?

I can be comfortable enough with one demonic character being part of the equation of Laura’s parentage because that means there’s a human being, Sarah, who was hoodwinked. There would be a level of secrecy involved that can keep Laura and her mother based in humanity her whole life.


But if Sarah too has lost her humanity along the way? Then there’s now a level of destiny to it for Laura. A ridiculousness, a level of Demons In Love that is just plain bizarre an angle to introduce into the story based on trauma. With this new take, both her parents know: Laura is a monster by birth.

It becomes something of an inheritance for Laura. She has inhumanity in her. Her father knows this. Her mother knows this.  Laura may not, but instead of “there is a monster in this house” the story becomes “you are the offspring of monsters.”

Her entire nature becomes rooted in demon and she has to somehow deny her biology. Instead of “her life has been invaded by trauma” it becomes “her biology is literally monster.” Rather than a rogue agent who could just as easily be inhabited by monsters as she could grow into a normal woman, she near indisputably is the monster. And she has to realize it and overcome it but how is she supposed to overcome what she literally is made from? It changes the story entirely and it’s not a duality as much as it is about denying your self to become good. Because there’s something literally and fundamentally wrong with you in the first place.

The Palmer family’s trauma at the heart of Twin Peaks went like this: A father was raping his daughter. The daughter drowned her life in drugs and things that kept her too busy to absorb what was happening. A mother was incapable of interacting with it, much less able to stop it. It was complicated by the fact a demon was possessing the father and encouraging him to cater to his worst natures and attractions. But the daughter was mostly human because her father was (let’s say) 50% human and her mother was 100% human. She was raised as a human being.

If, as The Final Dossier heavily suggests, Sarah Palmer was inhabited by a form of demon herself since before she met Leland, that makes things much more complicated because then Laura was raised by two people who had demons within them. She is made from 50% monster, and she was raised by these monsters as well.  Nature as well as nurture are severely compromised, and it does not bode well for Laura’s humanity.


I am not a fan of this potential retcon. It doesn’t exactly hamper Laura’s agency but it sure doesn’t help it, and I’ve been protective of Laura’s agency since Part Eight set her up as a potential Chosen One character. This choice to involve Sumerian God-Demons in the mythology seems more in the Chosen One lane than not, and it leaves me massively uncomfortable. It’s not a dealbreaker, but I’m not a fan of the choice by Lynch and Frost to make this a possibility. It’s got me making Bob and Judy comics just to try to force more humanity into this. I’m trying to understand, but it’s really difficult.

How is a regular human girl supposed to approach dealing with her situation if she potentially needs cosmic help from a Fireman to be able to get the bravery to confront her abuser? In Fire Walk With Me, Laura found the bravery inside herself. In Season Three it appears what she finds in herself is a demon center and help only from a golden globe that didn’t originally come from her. And the whole season’s mantra is shovel yourself out of the shit, so you know this can’t go well.

It’s all awkward. But is this, like everything else in Season Three (and Secret History, and Final Dossier), a purposeful misdirection? Does this have to do with an unreliable narrator even on this most central issue? Is anything safe from misdirection?

Is the point to undercut this central trauma and misdirect us away from it? It’s put right out there: Tamara Preston specifically talks about looking away after she herself just told us to look at Sumerian God Demons as the actual parents of Laura Palmer. Was her demon explanation a moment of looking away from the true issue?

Everything else in the book is undercut (Annie being mired in a backstory rife with season two mundanity masking the fact she’s a tulpa or an otherwise CooperDougie-like entity) so there is a consistency to base this in. The Diane Podcast mentioned how Lynch and Frost are actually telling a simple story in Season Three but they put all these plot threads in play and make all these wacky eyecatching characters so that we are distracted from the actually-straightforward plot. I think this take is spot-on, and the trauma associated with the Palmer Family is the important thing being misdirected away from in the Final Dossier.

Maybe this book (and less explicitly the ending of Season Three as well) is giving us the choice to forget the central trauma. We too can take this opportunity to look away. We can say “oh, it’s about that kind of monsters.”


We can get some rest, close our eyes, dream a little easier. And we get a chance to ignore the real monsters in play.

Tamara mentions the harm of looking away in the conclusion of The Final Dossier:

“Is the evil in us real? Is it an intrinsic part of us, a force outside us, or nothing more than a reflection of the void? How do we hold both fear and wonder in the mind at once? Does staring into the darkness offer up answers, or resolution?” Later on she writes, “The only answer I can console myself with is this: what if the truth lies just beyond the limits of our fear, and the only way to reach it is to never look away? What if that’s why we must keep going, why we can never quit trying to overcome it in every moment we’re alive?” 

When she writes “How easy it is to quit, give up, lower our eyes. Look what happens to anyone here who lost the fight,” I can’t help but think she’s talking about Sarah. The “look away” stuff from Tamara may be the official metaphor of the book, and possibly Season Three. I’ve heard it mentioned on multiple podcasts that, specifically in reference to the Woodsman’s poem, the “white of the eyes” are revealed when you look away. This guess, as far as I’m concerned, has been proven absolutely correct.

Look away from the simple human horrors in Twin Peaks. Make it about Sumerian demons. Make it about anything else other than two parents actively making it impossible for their child to be safe in their own home.

Maybe that’s how monsters really are made.


To go along with Tamara’s Sumerian God Demons theory, I’ll do some looking away and throw in a few other reasonable possibilities for a moment.

As I’m proposing in my previous column that Twin Peaks is a hybrid lodge/reality space, it’s possible JudySarah is a Lodge version of Sarah associated with part of Laura’s lodge cycle loop as Laura digs herself out of her shit.

It’s also possible JudySarah is the only thing left of Sarah and she’s literally haunting regular reality’s Twin Peaks, specifically the Palmer House while the Tremonds are the current family living in it. The sound in the kitchen when Hawk was talking to Sarah in the doorway could have been Alice Tremond. Though also it could have been the real Sarah making a drink while JudySarah kept Hawk from entering. There are so many permutations worth considering.

But the one I keep coming back to is the first one: maybe Sarah is a monster.

Used to be, Bob was either a metaphor or he was real after all, it didn’t matter which. The darkness was always real and Laura and Sarah were too. Maybe in The Final Dossier it’s just Bob and Judy as metaphors, same as it ever was just with more demons. Maybe the monster in Sarah is Lynch and Frost’s way of implicating Sarah finally, acknowledging Sarah’s guilt after years of leaving her off to the side of the story. Maybe she became a monster after living with her guilt for 25 years. Maybe she’s opened herself to an evil spirit and it timequaked her into an overwritten state she must have retroactively always been in. Because after all, how could a mother let something like that happen to her own daughter? She must have been a monster the whole time.

Sarah showed the whites of her eyes to the trauma under her own roof just like in the 1956 scenes of Part Eight when she let in a monster and things got worse. This is the exact inverse effect of a golden shovel. Sarah is unable to forgive herself, and is trapped in a feedback loop of PTSD. According to Season Three patterns this means she’s doomed to remain looped in a cycle, stuck in place as trauma pummels her as she tries to turn away.

This is how monsters are really made: you look away. You close your eyes. You fall asleep. And it becomes a part of you while you’re too busy dreaming to realize where you physically are.

And it becomes so much a part of you that you must have always been this way. You can’t remember a time in your life when you weren’t a monster, so you must have always been one. It’s the only explanation you can come up with to tell yourself. It’s the only way you could let something like that happen to your daughter, and by your own husband no less. There’s no other way this could have happened, right? You must have allowed it, you must be the monster. You must be complicit.

If you’re Sarah, you may feel there’s no other way to read this. There’s no avenue you can take to forgive yourself. Because while you looked away from what was happening, Laura’s trauma became so much a part of you that all you can hear are screams, and there is nothing left of yourself. Nothing left to hold onto, just more things to hide from. The pain around you climbed inside you one night and it kept getting worse and worse, and it grew in you so long over so much time that you may as well be the thing a monster is wearing. You are hollow inside, and there’s no light left. You haven’t seen light near your life since your daughter died. Since then, the only thing that can find anything to smile about is the monster. So you let it.

I think the Seasons One and Two Sarah is who we thought she was: a human mother who has one human child and one compromised human/demon father undermining Laura’s upbringing from a place of secrecy. And this secrecy, this gaslighting of Sarah, has proven the perfect fertilizer for pain and suffering. Sarah became hollow, filled with darkness, as any mother of a murdered child would likely feel, from her core outward. And being Twin Peaks, this empty woman has become an empty chrysalis, ready to hold any demons inside that would feast on void, until it breaks through the barrier and seeds the world with an explosion of her grief.

So to answer the earlier question, I don’t think the fundamental trauma at the heart of Twin Peaks has changed. I think what’s happened is the trauma at its heart has retroactively changed Twin Peaks itself, both backwards and forwards through time. The monster inside Sarah, after it moved in, did some redecorating to the entire length of Sarah’s life. And oh boy is it a lot darker now.


Articles mentioned above:

The Alchemical Origin of Laura Palmer: Does she have a choice or is she a Chosen One?

Final Dossier: Audrey & Annie explain reality, the roadhouse gets around, and timequake keeps ticking – Electricity Nexus #8

Cooper’s time loop isn’t just his – Electricty Nexus #1

Time moves strangely, or, metaphysical geologic events in Twin Peaks

Sarah Palmer and the case of the living map and sudden turkey jerky

Hysteria in Twin Peaks by Hannah Searson

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Written by John Bernardy

John Bernardy has been writing for 25YL since before the site went public and he’s loved every minute. The show most important to him is Twin Peaks. He is husband to a damn fine woman, father to two fascinating individuals, and their pet thinks he’s a good dog walker.


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  1. Let’s remember that Carl Jung heavily influenced Frost in the writing of the series. Here’s a fragment of Jung’s “Four Archetypes” that might be relevant: “The primitive mentality finds it quite natural to personify
    the invisible presence as a ghost or demon. The souls or
    spirits of the dead are identical with the psychic activity of the
    living; they merely continue it. The view that the psyche is a
    spirit is implicit in this. When therefore something psychic happens
    in the individual which he feels as belonging to himself,
    that something is his own spirit. But if anything psychic happens
    which seems to him strange, then it is somebody else’s spirit,
    and it may be causing a possession. The spirit in the first case
    corresponds to the subjective attitude, in the latter case to public
    opinion, to the time-spirit, or to the original, not yet human,
    anthropoid disposition which we also call the unconscious.”

    • That all sounds fantastic. I’m going to need to read up on that when I finally get around to tackling the influence of Theosophy on Peaks. All of that absolutely feels right about old twin peaks and I think it’s been wrinkled for this new season…regardless of how I get there, know I’ll be revisiting all of this after time.

  2. Leland/BOB and Sarah/Jowday were together for years. They reproduced but instead of the demon world killer they expected, they got the Golden Laura, courtesy of the Fireman. And Laura could not be possessed. Or, a molester dad and an enabling mom (to be sure she was drugged but she had to know on some level) tormented their child for years and then murdered her. Monsters either way.

      • Our maths agree to as many decimals as you like. My temporal geology also matches yours. To extend your metaphor past the breaking point, or rather, to compress it, Sarah is like a reverse fault. Each timequake pushes up and another layer is revealed at the bottom. Maybe it’s the Jowday layer, or maybe just the unconscious-enabler layer. We’re free to choose our interpretation. But something dark emerges in Sarah after all the timequakes, foreshocks and aftershocks.

      • I apologise if this is a duplicate reply. Our maths match to any decimal you choose. And I am convinced of the aptness of your temporal geology analogy. I think of Sarah’s layers as the consequence of a reverse fault. Each timequake, foreshock, and aftershock compressed her and pushed her layers upward until the Jowday or abuse-enabler layer surfaced. Her surface layers eroded away until the bad rock became her outer, public layer. I don’t care for the Jowday retcon very much but Sarah had to have something dark and brittle at her base after losing a child, a niece, a husband, her sobriety, and her community standing. I think I’ve pushed the geology metaphor as far as I can but I am so pleased you presented that theory. It makes so much sense.

        • Jiminy Christmas! I’m glad it makes sense for your head 😊 Your application directly to Sarah was a ton of fun to read and it makes enough sense to me for sure, and I love the idea Sarah’s a reverse fault…I’m officially working that into my unified theory now (Thanks for the vote of confidence too 👍🏻)

  3. Although I am still brooding about the hybrid lodge/reality, this is one of the best takes on Sarah I have read so far – this includes the comments. In my opinion her being the frogmoth girl and Judy even from the start would be no disappointing retcon, but fit well with the „looking away“ theme of which I am very convinced of being central to the season.

    Now, when I read about the layers in the comments, I have to think about the bar scene with Sarah and the trucker. Did you notice that after opening her face mask the Judy entity inside seemed to remove a mask AS WELL?

    • I think that’s a good thing to keep remembering. Most people have been saying it’s jumping man in there so it makes sense there’d be a second mask, but Misdirection could very easily be afoot 👍🏻 I’ve got an out-there rabbit hole I’m starting to go down in a related path…

      • I know I’m replying to a super old reply but… it’s not Jumping Man, it’s definitely Jowday/Judy/”the Experiment” – the white entity from ep 8 and the glass box. Sarah opens her face, and we see Jowday’s face with her big ol’ mouth, then she opens HER face and we see the human smile under that. I’ve read that it’s Laura’s smile, but I’ve never actually compared it myself.

        Totally off tangent of the article, but I love that scene. I feel like for that one moment, Judy and Sarah are in symbiosis, and Judy protects her. Okay, yeah, probably only because Judy doesn’t want her host damaged, but it was still nice to see Mr. Truck You get dealt with so efficiently.

  4. I’m a huge fan of the return, but at the same time I know completely what you mean. Sarah being a “demon” force, possessed by the female equivalent of BOB/Beelzebub felt almost like a stretch too far. (You can imagine the Lynch/Frost skype conversation – “Leyland was BOB last time – hey, why don’t we make SARAH the evil one this time!”) but this just doesn’t accord with what we have seen and been told so far – and rewatching the first two seasons, as I’m doing with my girlfriend at the moment, really drives this home.

    In a bizarre way I can see this as affording Sarah some autonomy – she is going from passive victim to controlling entity now (albeit an evil one). But, again, this seems unfair and even arguably undoes much of the great work FWWM did to tell her side of the story.

    My take, the best slant I can put on it, is that there is a metaphorical level in which this can all be read. Sarah, all alone in the house, drinking her vodka, the gossip of the town, her life, her hopes, her dreams all turned to ashes, after 25 years has been through a hall of mirrors and has turned out misshapen and mutated, “possessed” (much like Leland was, if you choose to read it that way) and turned into a demonic entity, not literally, but through years of grief and rage. The human equivalent of Laura’s scream.

    • I completely agree this works solidly on the metaphorical level, and think it’s really cool of it does add autonomy to Sarah. I can see how you’d get there…it definitely seems to be giving Sarah a choice in how to handle things. I’ll be pondering. 👍🏻

  5. I think that rather than the Palmers all being born monsters, that they have been possessed by these entities, against their will. Leland is invaded physically and mentally by BOB when he is a child, we see the result actually on screen. Of course, it doesn’t excuse his actions towards Laura, Maddy or even Theresa Banks. We know that no one becomes evil overnight, and BOB has probably possessing Leland for years. During his dying moments, as Cooper tells Sarah Palmer, he faces up to his actions and confesses and takes the blame. BUT what was BOB’s reason for abusing Laura? The Return seems to hint that BOB was trying to procreate and succeeded with Audrey and her son Richard. We see the unpleasant side of Leland’s character at the dinner table, what should be a time for family to sit down together for a meal and share their day becomes a power play with Leland trying to dominate Laura. It looks as though Leland realises how little he knows his only child. In Laura’s diary there is never any mention of Leland’s behaviour, only BOB’s. In fact Laura barely mentions him.

    Sarah and Laura Palmer are much more complicated characters, they are both victims of BOB/ Leland. At first Sarah seems like a tragic survivor, she is drugged by Leland so she will not discover what he does to their daughter. We know that she (Laura and their female relatives all) possess clairvoyant abilities or some kind of ESP (extra sensory perception). She survives to discover the truth of her daughter’s murder, but by the series finale BOB is speaking through her, and by the Return she has herself been possessed by The Mother, which just seems really unfair. Maybe the years of grief, loneliness and tragedy really have opened her up to possession. That means that if Cooper really has achieved his goal and saved Laura from her terrible fate there will be no emotional reunion with her mother. Instead Cooper will have a new evil to fight, maybe this time with Laura’s help.

    LAURA IS BACK. I think it was always Lynch’s plan to bring Laura back to life, (and it upset a lot of people). In The Secret History Agent Preston describes Laura as being a Missing Person rather than a murder victim, which means that Cooper’s plan worked. Cooper saving Laura upset a lot of viewers and theorists because it meant that Laura was denied her final victory of dying rather than being possessed by BOB. BUT, it does mean that if Laura is alive, in the guise of Carrie Page, she has a second chance at life and if Laura really has woken up, she has a chance to face up to the horrors of her childhood.
    I don’t think that Laura is a Chosen One, as many theorists believe. Yes she has certain abilities like Cooper, who always seemed destined to end up in TWIN PEAKS, but if she has returned maybe its the fate she suffered at BOB’s hands that will be her weapon to fight this new evil JUDY, rather than destiny.

  6. Okay now that I’ve read this, first off I’ll say that I prefer your take on the Final Dossier to my original opinion. Basically, I dismissed it, or at least everything I didn’t like about it. Which was most of the stuff in Judy’s and Jeffries’s sections. But I like your idea, that it’s misdirection, much better – because it DOES help clear up a lot otherwise, like noting that reality did continue on in the town, but it was a reality where Laura disappeared without her body ever being found. Using the misdirection idea, I don’t have to dismiss the Dossier entirely 🙂

    I also think the theory about Judy/Sarah haunting the former Palmer house is neat, something I hadn’t ever thought of! One of many possibilities.

    Now, this is all my reasoning for why I think the Sumerian Joudy (ugh) stuff + the Sarah was possessed in ep 8 implication is crap:
    -If Judy and BOB are spouses, why the heck didn’t they mate (UGH) in episode 8? They were right there together, would have saved them both a lot of trouble trying to find each other decades later.
    -Judy gave birth to BOB (via her mouth, but still); she’s his mother. That said, this is probably my weakest evidence since a.) there’s the whole incest theme and b.) the ACTUAL Sumerian deity Ba’al did possibly have his mom as his consort (at least his mom and consort had the same name).
    -Speaking of which, there was no Sumerian deity named Joudy, at least that I could find anything on.
    -I don’t believe the girl in episode 8 was Sarah, first of all, because she was Latina, and Sarah is white. I don’t know if anyone else has brought up the Dossier’s whitewashing by making that girl into Sarah, but it bothers me.
    -Also, Judy puked up a whole lot of those eggs. I interpreted what we saw in 8 as a representation of what happened to them: they showed us the fate of ONE egg to imply what happened to the rest. The Woodsmen put lots of people to sleep, possibly all over the world, and the bugs inhabited them. That one girl wasn’t particularly special, just poignant because she was young and innocent (like Laura when BOB first took her).
    -And for that matter, I took the eggs to be Judy’s spawn/children, not that she was transferring herself into Sarah via one of them. I think that when Judy possessed Sarah it was more like when BOB possessed Leland in the guise of “Robertson,” nothing at all like what happened to the girl in ep 8. (In fact, I got the feeling that the possession via frog bug was all the Woodsmen’s doing; Judy herself was not part of the process at all… she seemed pretty indifferent to what happened to her, well, vomit. Including what happened to BOB. I believe that Judy is not part of the Black Lodge at all; she is something far greater [or lesser, in the sense of the negative] and imo far more alien to our world. I’m a Lovecraft fan, so I’m imagining something of a cross between Azathoth and Nyarlathotep but female. Judy happened to be in the right/wrong place at the right/wrong time for the Trinity Test to force her to spawn, and the Black Lodge took advantage of that. And she let them do whatever they wanted as long as she wasn’t bothered with it, because she didn’t care about this world or any of its crap until way later when she realized it posed an actual threat to her. …and my apologies for going waaaay off tanget.)

    All that said, I personally believe that Judy did not possess Sarah until after the end of season 2, maybe not even until after season 3 began… so everything we see in FWWM and seasons 1+2 is the real (albeit often drugged or in a psychic trance) Sarah. I’m pondering whether the white horse is actually an avatar of Judy, although of course that would be retconning, so that when Sarah sees the horse in her drugged state, it’s actually Judy appearing to her future host. But regardless I don’t think Judy was actually possessing her at that point. I don’t have evidence to support any particular moment of possession over another, though, it’s just my preference.

    Sorry for the novel, and it isn’t to say that I disagree with you! I feel that Sarah probably DOES feel like a true monster when she is herself. Most of my theories and head canons get worked out as fan fiction, so I did one focused around Sarah’s possession (lemme tell you, writing from Judy’s POV is a trip). I tried to work Sarah’s guilt into that, but once she knows Judy existed, she has Judy to blame too… so in a way, it takes some of the burden of guilt off of her? Although I guess it’s up in the air whether she actually is aware of Judy’s presence or not. I take the option that she is, based on her behavior in The Return, but again, I don’t have any concrete evidence.

    • Great comment…the fact that the actress who plays the New Mexico girl is not white (I think I assumed she was Native American, though I’m not totally sure why) is something I thought about but never actually *thought* about.

      That said, I really tend to like the Sarah-as-NM-Girl idea. And perhaps (or perhaps not) more importantly, I think there are clues that Lynch shares it as well. For one, he gives the frog-bug the Jumping Man’s nose (and of course it’s tendency to jump) which we later see juxtaposed with Sarah several times. For another, the way Frost teased this revelation at a Q&A made it sound like it was something he and Lynch actually decided upon vs. for example, Audrey and Judy-as-Sumerian (and the general avoidance of Diane) which feel 100% like Frost’s attempts to interpret Lynch’s own innovations through his own filter.

      I also am not that keen on the idea of Judy as “the great evil” or whatever. Miriam Bale observed that the description of her is pointedly a “negative force” or something to that effect, which of course has strong electrical connotations and is very ambiguous language in terms of establishing a villain. I tend to think whatever Judy’s importance is to the story it must be articulating something that was already present there, nor some late-stage, add-on retcon.

      Love your blog, btw. Under another of John’s pieces I linked your post on Judy’s face being under Sarah’s when she lifts her face off. I never really got it before then, but for sure we see the black maw on the white face in that space — it’s Judy, or at least Experiment anyway. (If course we see the nose too so the Jumping Man is in there as well.)

      And your diary entries from 1990 or so were wild. You might have a year or two on me (I was born ‘83) but my parents were definitely not gonna let me watch Twin Peaks – I don’t think they even watched it either – and I’ve always been intrigued by what I would have made it as a kid if I had tuned in.

      Don’t know if WordPress sends updates (I never had much luck with it when I tried) but there it is.

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‘Find Laura’ – Was Leland’s Plea The Most Important Line Of The Season?

Josh eisenstadt

My Interview With Josh Eisenstadt: Part 1